Large quantities of carbon can be found in the sun and in the atmosphere of most planets. Although on the earth the content of carbon is less than 0.1 percent, it still is the basis of organic chemistry and of life itself. This is because of carbon's property to form composites with itself and with other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, or nitrogen.
Crystalline carbon is only known in five allotropic forms:
GRAPHITE, DIAMONDS, FULLERENES, NANOTUBES and GRAPHENE
Types of Graphite
Graphite is chemically inert, eco-friendly, and absolutely safe. It is classified as microcrystalline and macrocrystalline natural graphite and synthetic graphite. Six hexagonally arranged carbon atoms form the basic unit of the graphite crystal. The twodimensional lattices are highly stable within themselves, but they can be easily shifted against each other.
The origin of vein graphite, also known as lump graphite, is particularly special as it is apparently formed by hydrothermal fluids. An outstanding feature of vein graphite is that its deposits reach a graphitic carbon content above 90%, even purities up to 99.5% are possible.
Sri Lanka currently is the only country where vein graphite is mined in large quantities. Graphit Kropfmühl is the major shareholder of the Bogala Mine in Sri Lanka which produces the lion share of graphite in the country.